راهنمای انتخاب ادوات کنترل کننده نور برای فلاش عکاسی

نورپردازي زبان عكاسي است. اطلاعاتي را كه پرتوهاي نور به بيننده منتقل مي كنند بايد همچون كلمات واضح و گويا باشد. عكاسي نيز همچون آموختن يك زبان خارجي شامل دو بخش قواعد و زبان مي باشد. در يك  عكس حرفه اي هم تكنيك وجود دارد و هم خلاقيت در آن نهفته است. فراگيري اصول شما را قادر مي سازد تا تصميم بگيريد فلاش اصلي در كجا قرار گيرد. اين مهمترين قدم است، بقيه كارها تنظيمات جزئي و دقيق فلاش ها و دوربين است. عكس هاي خوب نيازمند برنامه ريزي و تامل هستند. بدون شك نورپردازي مهمترين قسمت اين برنامه ريزي مي باشد. به همين دليل عكاس بايد قبل از اينكه فلاش هاي خود را روشن كند سوژه نورپردازي شده را در ذهن خود مجسم نمايد. ممكن است اين برنامه ريزي درچند ثانيه تمام شود و يا ساعت ها و روزها به طول بينجامد. مهم نيست چقدر براي نور پردازي سوژه وقت مي گذاريد. هر چه قبل از فشردن دكمه شاتر بيشتر فكر كنيد كار كمتري را در نرم افزارها انجام خواهيد داد.

آگاهی از نحوه اثرگذاری ادوات کنترل کننده نور (مانند سافت باکس‌ها و آکتا باکس‌ها) به شما کمک می‌کند تا با آگاهی و دقت بیشتر تجهیزات مورد نیاز برای ثبت عکس مورد نظر خود را انتخاب نمایید. از این رو در این مقاله به مورد نحوه اثرگذاری هر یک از ادوات کنترل کننده نور می‌پردازیم.

ادوات کنترل کننده نور

كاسه‌هاي استاندارد (Standard Reflector)

كاسه‌هاي استاندارد (Standard Reflector)

نوري كه توسط كاسه‌ي استاندارد تابيده مي‌شود، پركنتراست، يك نواخت و شديد مي‌باشد. بارندور، سرپوش لانه زنبوري و نگه دارنده‌هاي فيلتر بر روي كاسه‌ي استاندارد نصب مي‌شود. كاسه‌هاي استاندارد در اندازه‌هاي مختلفي ساخته مي‌شوند. هرچه دهانه‌ي كاسه‌ي استاندارد تنگ تر باشد، زاويه‌ي تابش محدودتري داشته ولي در عوض نور تابيده شده از آن از قدرت و شدت بيشتري برخوردار است. سطح داخلی کاسه های استاندارد ممکن است براق، مات یا نیمه مات باشد.

بارندور (Barn door)

بارندور (Barn door)

نور منبع فلاش توسط سايبان‌هايي به سمت سوژه هدايت مي‌شوند تا از پراكندگي آن جلوگيري شود. اين صفحات معمولاً در چهار جهت به فلاش متصل مي‌شوند. يكي ديگر از مزاياي استفاده از بارندور اين است كه شما مي‌توانيد با بستن سايبان‌هاي اطراف بارندور سوژه را نورپردازي كنيد بدون اين كه  نور اين منبع نور بر روي پسزمينه تأثير بگذارد تا بدين صورت پسزمينه تيره بماند. هم چنين اگر امكان استفاده از سافت باكس يا چترها با اندازه‌هاي مختلف را نداريد مي‌توانيد با تاباندن نور از يك بارندور به يك صفحه‌ي ملايم كننده‌ي نور شفاف، منابع نوري با اندازه‌هاي مختلف ايجاد كنيد.

گرید یا سرپوش لانه زنبوري (Honeycomb / Grid)

گرید یا سرپوش لانه زنبوري (Honeycomb / Grid)

سرپوش لانه زنبوري ابزار بسيار مفیدی براي نورپردازي به منظور هدايت و متمركز كردن نور روي سوژه است بدون اين كه در قدرت روشنايي تأثير چنداني بگذارد. اين ابزار نور را جهت دار كرده و از پخش شدن آن به اطراف جلوگيري مي‌كند.

اسنوت (Snoot)

اسنوت (Snoot)

اسنوت‌ها عموماً براي نورپردازي موضعی مخصوصاً موها در عكاسي پرتره به كار مي‌رود. در عكاسي طبيعت بي جان و استوديويي هم براي محدود و متمركز كردن نور و پرتاب دايره‌ي نور در منطقه‌ي خاص از این ابزار خرطومی شکل استفاده می شود. همچنین به علت داشتن دهانه‌ي تنگ، احتمال ايجاد پراكندگي يا فلر را نيز در عكاسي به حداقل مي‌رساند. اسنوت‌ها در اندازه‌ها و دهانه‌هاي مختلف و پوشش داخلي مشكي ساخته مي‌شوند و نور پر كنتراستي دارند.

نکته مهمی که هنگام تهیه اسنوت بایستی توجه داشته باشید این است که دارای هواکش در پشت باشد تا حرارت لامپ مدلینگ باعث داغ شدن بدنه اسنوت و سر فلاش نشود. مضافاً اینکه این حرارت زیاد ممکن است باعث ایجاد سوختگی انگشتان شما هنگام تعویض آن شود.

عموماً کیت سرپوش لانه زنبوری و فیلتر های رنگی نیز همراه اسنوت عرضه می شود.

چتر(Umbrella)

چتر(Umbrella)

نور تابيده شده از چترها ملايم، شفاف، كم كنتراست، يك نواخت و نرم است. استفاده از چترها هم آسان بوده و هم در تمامي رشته‌هاي عكاسي كاربرد دارد. چترها در دو نوع شفاف (عبوري) و بازتابي ساخته مي‌شود. چترهاي عبوری مصارف بي شماري دارند؛ از نور اصلي گرفته تا نور سايه پركن كاربرد دارند و به علت محدوده‌ي وسيع تابش هنگام استفاده از لنزهاي با فاصله‌ي كانوني كم (وايد) بسيار مناسب مي‌باشند. چترهاي بازتابي درسه نوع سفيد، نقره‌اي و طلايي وجود دارند. چترهاي بازتابي سفيد نوري به مراتب طبيعي تر و نرم تر نسبت به چترهاي نقره‌اي ايجاد مي‌كند.  (در همه تصاویر دوربین با یک دیافراگم و سرعت تنظیم شده است.)

سافت باكس (Soft box)

سافت باكس (Soft box)

سافت باكس‌ها مشابه چترها و آكتاباكس‌ها عمل مي‌كنند، با اين تفاوت كه امكان نصب سايبان شبكه‌اي و ماسك‌ها براي سافت باكس‌ها وجود دارد. هرچه اندازه‌ي سافت باكس بزرگ تر باشد نور آن ملايم‌تر مي‌شود. سافت باکس ها یکی از مهم ترین، سودمند ترین و پر کاربردترین ابزارها برای نورپردازی داخل استودیو می باشند.

سافت باکس ها در ابعاد گوناگونی عرضه می شوند که اندازه 120×80 و90×60 سانتی متری آن برای نورهای اصلی و سایه پرکن و سافت باکس های بلند و کشیده در اندازه های 140×40 و 90×20 سانتی متری برای نورپردازی حاشیه ای و ایجاد باریکه ای از نور در سوژه استفاده می شود. توجه داشته باشيد برای نورپردازی حاشیه ای بهتر است هنگام استفاده از سافت باكس، گريد آن را نصب نماييد تا نور به اطراف پراكنده نشود.

داخل بدنه‌ي سافت باكس- هم چون چترهاي بازتابي- نقره‌اي بوده و روي آن صفحه‌ي پارچه ای ملايم كننده‌ي نور نصب مي‌شود.

آكتاباكس (Octabox)

آكتاباكس (Octabox)

براي ملايم كردن نور مي‌توانيد از آكتاباكس‌ كمك بگيريد. آكتاباكس‌ها  در فاصله‌ي ميان چترها وسافت باكس‌ها قرار دارند. آكتاباكس‌ها هشت ضلعي‌هايي شبيه سافت باكس‌ها هستند اما در عکاسی پرتره به علت اندازه‌ي مناسب و ارائه‌ي بازتاب‌هاي طبيعي‌تر كارایی بهتری نسبت به سافت باكس‌ها دارند. آكتاباكس‌ها بدون صفحه‌ي ملايم كننده‌ نيز كاربرد دارند.

بیوتی دیش (Beauty Dish)

بیوتی دیش (Beauty Dish)

بیوتی دیش که طراحی آن بسیار شبیه دیش های ماهواره ای است جهت کانونی نمودن نور روی سوژه استفاده می شود. نور بیوتی دیش نه به نرمیِ سافت باکس ها و نه به پرکنتراستی کاسه های استاندارد بوده و برای ایجاد حسی دراماتیک در سوژه قویاً توصیه می شود. همان طور که مشاهده می کنید، در مرکز بیوتی دیش – دقیقاً مقابل لامپ فلاش – یک گوبو قرار گرفته که باعث نوردهی یک نواخت آن  می شود. همچنین امکان نصب سرپوش لانه زنبوری و نیز صفحه ملایم کننده بر روی بیوتی دیش وجود دارد.

مگا لايت‌ (Mega Light)

مگا لايت‌ (Mega Light)

مگا لايت‌ها يا ادوات نورپردازي بزرگ كه محدوده‌ي وسيعي را تحت پوشش نور خود قرار مي‌دهند، در عكاسي حرفه‌اي كاربرد‌هاي فراوان و مفیدی دارند. به كمك اين ابزار عكاس مي‌تواند بازتاب‌هاي وسيع و گسترده ای را روي سطح اجسام ايجاد كند و يا نور بسيار ملايم و نرمي را به وجود آورد. مگا لايت‌ها هم به شكل سافت‌باكس‌هاي حجیم و هم چتر يا آكتاباكس‌هاي بزرگ جثه وجود دارند. در عکاسی پرتره و مُد، استفاده از مگالایت مدور (تصویر بالا) باعث ایجاد فضایی با کنتراست کم به همراه بُعد مطلوبی می شود، در نتیجه شما می توانید به جای صرف وقت برای نورپردازی، زمان بیشتری روی چیدمان، فیگور و حالت دهی سوژه بپردازید.

اگر امكان استفاده از سافت باكس يا مگا لایت با اندازه‌هاي مختلف را نداريد مي‌توانيد با تاباندن نور از يك بارندور به يك صفحه‌ي ملايم كننده‌ي نور شفاف، و یا دیوار یا سقف منابع نوري با اندازه‌هاي مختلف ايجاد نمایید.

 

منبع: کتاب دو جلدی نورپردازی حرفه ای در عکاسی

تألیف: رامین کاکاوند

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